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Ciptagaler - Part 2

sunny 20 °C

I returned from a big journey just yesterday so I really need to get this thing up to date, so now I'm reporting on a journey I made months ago. I still need to update this blog about my experience in Aceh. But anyway, for now, let's return to that village I went to called Ciptageler!


Upon our arrival in Ciptagelar, we were greeted by a couple of village elders and welcomed indoors. We sat on the floor in what was reminiscent of a kind of village guild or community house. Here, I met two fellows, one of which was called Kang Yoyo. Me and my companions were tired, but we sat on the floor and drank coffee together.


Unlike the rest of the folk in the village, Kang Yoyo (top picture) spoke English very well. This surprised me. “How is it that you're able to speak English?” I asked. Kang Yoyo told me that he had left the village of Ciptagaler in his younger years and travelled extensively. He travelled west to Europe, America, and Canada. He even lived in New York for a short period. Eight years ago, however, he decided to return to his village. I asked him why, and he then offered me a prolonged discourse on the differences between the East/West, including the conflicts inherent to Western philosophy and the idea of belief. He explained that in Ciptagelar, people believe in God (indeed, there was a mosque in the village); however, he also explained that the people in the village believe in cyclical existence opposed to lineal existence. Furthermore, he explained how people in the village believe in the power of nature, as well as the belief that ancestral spirits exist within nature. The idea of nature and life as cyclical, he claimed, comes from his peoples understanding and appreciation of the land. He equated their philosophy with a rice harvest, which naturally reproduces itself every year. Syncretic Islam is extremely common in Indonesia, where traditional Islam is mixted with Buddhist and Hindu beliefs (both of which were here over 500 years before Islam) as well as local traditions, culture and history. Ciptagelar is simply one example of the rich spiritual and cultural diversity which envelopes these lands.

My continued my discourse with Kang Yoyo. “I am not Indonesian,” Kang Yoyo said. “I am Sundanese.” For those who do not know, the Sundanese people are the second largest ethnic group here in Indonesia. They speak Bahasa Sunda, and mainly reside in West Java. Kang Yoyo explained to me that the Indonesian state has only existed for little over sixty years, while his people have lived and tilled the lands of West Java for over a thousand. Kang Yoyo then invited us into his home and offered us some more coffee as well as some snacks, and for several hours we sat and talked about a variety of topics.

I then explored Kang Yoyo's home a little, which was a kind of large shack built from wood.

I found these on Kang Yoyo's wall. They are Wayang (shadow puppets), although they differ from their central Javanese counterparts in that they're made from solid models. The Javanese Wayang, on the other hand, are embroidered together with material, which is then projected through the use of light onto a pale canvas. Both, however, are used in Wayang performances, which retell ancient myths from the lands of Java.


We then had the opportunity to try our hand at a couple of Kang Yoyo's personal instruments. The flute like instrument is called the Suling, while I've forgotten the other instruments name. Both are native to the Sundanese people. I failed at playing them both.


After this, I endeavoured to sleep. When I woke up, I explored the village.


In the distance, one can see trees. This was the forest that we travelled through in order to reach the village. The village is, if not too remote remote (the journey through the forest took around 2 and a half hours) then certainly well-hidden. The village is located in the highlands, so the journey here was a constant ascension.


The village is surrounded by fertile land, which the villagers use to grow crops and vegetables. Here, you should be able to make out the rice fields, which, unsurprisingly, form the staple in the villagers diet.


The houses in the village are constructed from wood. In contrast to the concrete jungle that is Jakarta, it was a real pleasure to escape into the country. The atmosphere of the place was quite uncanny. Somehow, it didn't seem real, like a dream or a video game. I suppose this is because I'm so used to spending time in the city, but the sense of awe was there all the same.


These small buildings are also constructed from wood and they're used to store rice.


As mentioned previously, the people in the village are native Sundanese.




As you can see, the man here is carrying a knife - or kris. This is obviously utilized for farming and for any other physical activities which it can be used for. Many of the men wielded them throughout the village.



Here, I am sat chilling in the main house in the village. It was a huge house although nowhere near the size of a mansion. The house had many rooms and a huge hall. This is picture of the kitchen, where the vast majority of people chose to sit, drink tea, eat, and of course converse about various matters.



The room was thick with smoke, which came from the stove here. This area was used to cook for the entire village, so you can imagine how much smoke was created. Although the villagers appeared more than comfortable in this environment, I definitely had to keep my distance from the stove.


This woman is separating the rice by pummeling it with the large stick-like device. The work looked very difficult and I can safely say that I couldn't do it.


This is a toilet. The idea is to squat over the pond. The excrement is then eaten by a type of fish. This fish has a truly delicious taste.


I bathed and drank from the river behind me. It was fresh straight from the mountains and very, very cold.


This is a small gamelan orchestra, played in the Sundanese tradition. For anybody who has a love for music I strongly urge you to hear the gamelan. It a percussion based orchestra which is unique to Indonesia; however, there are great stylistic variations between different regions. As you can also see, this particular orchestra is using electricity. Ciptagelar introduced electricity to the village in 2004. They built the generator themselves, which generates electricity from the river I am pictured in above.



In these pictures, one can the Indonesian flag and the school children wearing the national colours of red and black. This is a stark contrast to the words spoken by Kang Yoyo, who said that he didn't consider himself Indonesian but Sundanese. It was during the 1970s and especially the 1980s and 1990s that the then President Suharto sought to unite Indonesia under one common banner; that is, the banner of monocultural nationalism. This is clearly what Kang Yoyo was speaking against when he defined himself as a non-Indonesian.



There is, of course, much more to say about this village; however, I decided to write this blog for a particular reason, and this is to give my friends and especially my family back home an insight into my life here now in Indonesia. For this reason, I have to continue and this week I'll write another update about Aceh. Thanks for reading yo!


Posted by dabey 07:09 Archived in Indonesia Comments (1)

Aceh: Part 1 - Banda Aceh, Day 1

sunny 30 °C

Of all the lands in Indonesia (and with over 18,000 islands, there are many), there are two which never fail to make the news, and usually for the wrong reasons: Papua New Guinea and Aceh. I have yet to travel to the former but I travelled to the latter during the end of May. Located in north Sumatra (about 2.30/3.00 hours from Jakarta by plane), the region has a long history of conflict and turmoil. During the colonial years, it was the Acehnese who offered one of the fiercest resistances against Dutch colonial rule. This resistance culminated in the long and brutal Aceh War, which lasted from the years of 1873 until 1913, when after long years of bloodshed, the Dutch were finally victorious.

After Indonesia finally gained independence from Dutch rule in 1945, many Acehnese felt resentment towards the Indonesian state; in large, this was due to ethnic and cultural differences. The Acehnese have a long history of Islam which dates back to the 12th century, when the Sultanate of Aceh was established. The Indonesian government's attempt to incorporate Aceh into the state largely failed, and the Acehnese rebellion gained momentum in 1953, with calls for the imposition of an Islamic state existing outside of the Indonesian state. In 1959, the Indonesian state yielded to some of Aceh's demands and granted it semi-autonomous status, which allowed Aceh greater freedom over internal decisions.

In the 1970s, however, things took a turn for the worse. Under agreement from the central Indonesian government, American oil and gas companies began exploiting Aceh's rich gas and oil resources. In 1976, the Free Aceh Movement declared itself official when Hasan di Toro declared independence from the Indonesian state. No longer would Aceh be subjugated and oppressed by Indonesia or any other outside interference, Aceh would be free. Naturally this resulted in conflict, and during the 1980s there were a number of major security incidents which prompted the Suharto-led Indonesian government to further repress the Acehnese people. Human Rights abuses were rampant during this period. During the 1990s, the Acehnese rebellion strengthened, this time with a huge section of the Acehnese people behind independence. In the year 2003, a further offensive began and a complete state of emergency was proclaimed in the province. We all know what happened next.

The tsunami struck on 26 December 2004. The statistics are there for everybody to see: over 170,000 killed, half a million left homeless, the provinces infrastructure left in complete and utter disarray. Since the tsunami, Aceh has also undergone radical social and political transformations. For one, GAM, left in disarray after the tsunami, signed a peace deal with the Indonesian state. Furthermore, since the tsunami, there has also been an increased implementation of Shariah law, imposed by the the Shariah police. In theory, this means that the consumption of alcohol in the province can lead to a public lashing. No razzling it up here then.

As I said before however, the coverage of Aceh in the Indonesian media, at least the Jakartan media, is rarely positive. If the media is not covering some form of human rights abuses it shows a great deal of interest in various Islamist groups within Aceh. It is probably unsurprising that I was a little concerned about my trip to Aceh, especially considering I was travelling alone. Actually, I made a point of going to Aceh in light of the media's coverage here. The distortion of reality by the mainstream press and mainstream narrative is something which interests me. How true is this narrative about Aceh, I asked myself? I asked many of my students about Aceh. When I told them I was going to travel there, they repeated the same stories I read about in the press. Danger, terrorists, violence, conflict, Shariah law, tsunamis, earthquakes, and so on. Just last week, actually, the press here reported on how a local election turned violent. Before I went regional elections had been held a few days before, plus there had been another earthquake, which hit at around 9.0 on the richter scale. It was these images which enveloped my mind before the journey; and it is these images which were diminished upon my arrival, and completely destroyed by the time I left.

The flight to Aceh took about 2 and a half hours from Jakarta and I arrived in Aceh at some point in the early afternoon. It was hot, very hot, and unlike Jakarta, the sky was filled with neither clouds or pollution. On the plane, the gentleman next to me - an old Acehnese guy, retired, who said he had worked for an NGO during his work years - opened a discourse with me. He was extremely warm and hospitable - a far cry from the usual representations of the Acehnese as conveyed in the newspapers. "I'll take you to a decent place to stay," he said. "My driver is waiting for me at the airport." His benevolence helped diminish any minor worries I'd previously had

We drove from the airport, through rolling hills and small village-like communities. As is usual in Indonesia, people drove motorcycles. The roads were a far cry from those in Jakarta: they are well-developed, yet in terms of traffic, the two are incomparable. We soon arrived in Banda Aceh, which is the capital of the province, and before long I arrived at my abode. I booked a room for one night. This cost me 150 thousand rupiah, which is approximately 10/11 British pounds. After this, I took the gentleman's number and he said he'd be in contact. A friend already made. I then left my belongings in my room and took to the streets of Banda Aceh.

Banda Aceh is a city located on the coast. For this reason, the city excels in seafood. Upon leaving my motel, I came across a waroong and ate udang bakar (grilled king prawns) with nasi (rice) and sambal (homemade chilli paste). I then discovered a new type of transportation hitherto unknown to me.


Smiling faces aside, this is an ojek (motorcycle taxi) with a carriage attached to the side. Thus far, I've only seen them in Aceh. Excited at this new mode of transportation, I decided to take one. "Ke Masjid Raya," ("to Masjid Raya") I told my new acquaintance. This was a quick journey which cost less than 10000 rupiah (about 65 pence).

I arrived at Masjid Raya has night was about to descend. Masjid Raya (or Grand Mosque) is located in the centre of Banda Aceh. It is easily the most beautiful mosque in the city and probably the most famous in the country. Is is also very famous for surviving the 2004 tsunami, which reduced much of Banda Aceh to rubble.




This tower is directly facing the mosque.


These girls are on their way to prayer. As is common throughout Jakarta, the call to prayer is omitted through a loud-speaker, which can be heard over great distances.


I sat and listened to the call to prayer and I attracted the attention of several maids who endeavoured to sit next to me. They asked me where I was from, what I was doing in Aceh, why I was by myself. They were extremely pleasant. In turn, I asked them about their own endeavour. "Are you from Aceh?" I asked. They said they were from a village which was a few hours drive from Banda Aceh. I asked them why they were in Banda Aceh and they said they were attending some fashion/modelling competition. Keep in mind that, at this point, I'd only been in Aceh for a few hours. I still contained foolish thoughs in regards to the Shariah police: what if I am seen from a distance with these maids? I asked them what they did. They were all university students, they said. I had my photo taken with them, we exchanged numbers, and then I left.


I've forgotten this fellows name but the two of us chatted for long enough. You can see the Masjid Raya in the background. He was extremely friendly and courteous and he told me he had four wives. What a hero.


I visited the mosque again on my last day in Banda Aceh. During this second visit I was mobbed by a crowd of young gentlemen who were seemingly amazed by my appearance. They chased me and, me being me, they were easily able to catch me. They then asked me question after question and asked me whether they could have their picture taken with me. I obliged, thinking the encounter would last a mere minute or so. However, I was tricked in their endeavour, for they then proceeded to pull out a huge assortment of cameras and telephones. Everybody, it seemed, wanted their picture taken with me, and so the ordeal lasted for what seemed like hours, until I was eventually able to pull myself away from the group and make haste to a safer destination.


That's all for now. I will return soon enough and report the rest of my experience in Banda Aceh and beyond.


Posted by dabey 20:39 Archived in Indonesia Comments (2)

Aceh: Part 2 - Banda Aceh, Day 2


No sign of the Shariah police, no sign of militants wielding AK-47s and what have you, just friendly people with warmth and smiles. After my first day in Banda Aceh, I felt more than comfortable and secure.

On the second day, I met up with a friend of a friend; a friend of one of my students actually. His name was Jimmy and he was a local Acehnese. My student and friend had told me that he'd be more than willing to show me around Banda Aceh and the surrounding lands. I left my hotel early in the morning and met him at the Masjid Raya. He arrived, and after eating, we explored Banda Aceh with me on the back of his motorcycle.

Banda Aceh is not Jakarta. First of all, it is a small city with a population of less than 200,000 (although before the tsunami of 2004 this figure was approximated to be over 250,000). Second of all, it is a pleasant and beautiful city, with well-developed roads, clean streets, and lots of trees. This gives it the feeling of a large, comfortable town as opposed to a vast urban sprawl.

As mentioned previously, the colonization of Aceh was a long and difficult process for the Dutch, so much so that many of the Acehnese people's regional heroes are warriors from this period. Interestingly, many of these heroes are women, who also fought against the Dutch. The most famous of these anti-colonial heroines is probably Cut Nyak Dien, who led a guerilla movement against the Dutch forces during the Aceh War. The Dutch suffered terrible losses during this period and it took them 30 years to finally colonize Aceh. Descriptions by Dutch soldiers from the time are rife with images of suffering and hardship. Hardship, but also surprise at how the Acehnese, who were comparatively unarmed, managed to outmaneuver the Dutch time and time again until the Dutch eventually gained full control of Aceh in in 1913. Remnants of Aceh's colonial heritage can be found in many of Banda Aceh's museums as well as old colonial houses, such as the one pictured below. Today, these are lived in by local, wealthy Acehnese.


Banda Aceh is a coastal city, which probably goes some way in explaining why the 2004 tsunami was so destructive to the city. The tsunami would have launched itself over the small wall photographed below and completely wiped out any house or building or person it came into contact with.


Since the tsunami, however, those communites which survived have managed to rebuild their homes, lives, and infrastructure. These pictures are from a small village located on the coast of Banda Aceh, next to the sea pictured above. While the village was quite literally wiped from the earth, the mosque pictured at the bottom is famous for being the only building within the vicinity which survived the tsunami intact. It was barely damaged.


About 30 minutes drive from the village by Ojek, one can find this peculiar sight (pictured below), which stands as testament to the tsunami's impact and power.


This beastly structure was carried 3km by the tsunami, and when the tsunami finally receded, it was left on shore. Today it stands as testament to natures power and a monument of the Acehnese people - quite literally, it has been turned into a regional monument by the Acehnese government - and around it, the local people have again managed to rebuild their homes and lives. When the ship was pushed on shore it inevitably came into contact with homes, other buildings, and people, and the entire village was devastated. "Hundreds of people remain buried underneath," a local Acehnese told me. He claimed that it was haunted.



I climbed up and onto the ship. Pictured above is its interior.

I only spent a day and a half in Banda Aceh. This was mainly spent in museums, looking at monuments, eating delicious food, and tracing the after effects of the tsunami. In that time, however, I met and spoke to enough friendly faces. Here are some of the most interesting.


I met these splendid chaps outside a school. They are dressed in traditional Acehnese wears and were performing the Saman, a dance which originated from Central Aceh in the 16th century. The dance (pictured below) is performed kneeling and involves singing, reciting poetry, humming, and clapping the shoulders, chest, and thighs.



I met these girls in a museum dedicated to pre-colonial Acehnese history. With the help of my friend, I chatted to them for a while - and would you believe it? They were not terrorists and they didn't try to kill me! The cute smiles and "Hello Kitty" handbag are a reminder to all those stupid, ignorant journalists who insist on denigrating Aceh as dangerous and its people as fundamentalist militants and terrorists (whatever those terms even mean).


These women were selling SIM cards and mobile phone credit. Surprisingly, I did not feel that my life was under threat.


A fine chap. He, like so many others in Indonesia, supported Manchester United. We became friends and he offered to show me around Banda Aceh. I explained that I was actually leaving Banda Aceh the next morning and heading further South or East, so we exchanged numbers and gave our goodbyes.


I met this women and her lovely daughter in the evening, at a traditional market located next to the Masjid Raya. We got chatting and she said she taught English in a State school outside of Banda Aceh. Her daughter was very, very shy, but adorable, and although it might come as a great surprise to some journalists and commentators, once again I felt safe and secure in the child's presence.

On the next morning I left Banda Aceh and took an Ojek through the country, visiting a number of villages and making my to the town of Sigli, which is on the Eastern coast of Aceh. For now, I leave you with a cheeky picture of my own fine, pure, innocent self. Farewell for now.


Posted by dabey 02:39 Archived in Indonesia Comments (3)

Aceh, Part 3: To Sigli!

overcast 27 °C

The journey from Banda Aceh to Sigli takes just under three hours by Ojek (that is, if you're utilizing the motorcycle at full-speed, much like my companion was). It doesn't take long to get outside of the city; after all, Banda Aceh itself is green, and in what seems like minutes, you'll be bombing along surprisingly well-developed roads and simultaneously treated to wonderful rolling eyes, trees straight out of Jurassic Park, and vegetation as far as the eyes can see.


On the way, one can find the occasional village or waroong. We stopped at one on the way so that we might eat. Acehnese food is influenced by Indian and Arab cuisine: breads, such as pitta and so forth are commonplace, just as kare (curry), usually in the form of duck, goat, chicken, or beef, is. There is also the famous Mie Aceh (Acehnese style noodles), which is best served with with kepiting (crab), and the seafood is generally fantastic.


This fine broth was cooked by some villagers in a waroong just off the main road. It is kare kambing (goat curry - see below).



Further along the road to Sigli, we stopped at the mosque pictured below so that my companion could pray. As he was praying, I went for a wander.


The three ladies pictured below were stationed just outside the mosque; they were selling peanuts fresh from the ground, boiled and then salted. The peanuts were still warm and delicious. In fact, they were the finest peanuts man has ever tasted.


Further along the road and much closer to Sigli, I was treated to a fine sight. These elephants have been domesticated by the villagers, who clearly utilise their strength and power in order to aid their daily lives.



We found this peculiar looking mosque on the outskirts of Sigli.


I'll upload more pictures as well as my tales of Sigli very soon.

Posted by dabey 21:31 Archived in Indonesia Comments (0)

Aceh, Part 4: Sigli and the Surrounding Lands

overcast 27 °C

Sigli is situated on the Eastern coast of Aceh, just under three hours drive from Banda Aceh. It is a small town with a small population, and it is surrounded by beautiful country, inhabited by people living in kampungs (villages). The region was wracked by armed conflict for many years, and many of the villages were destroyed by the 2004 tsunami. Like in Banda Aceh, however, today the survivors of the tsunami have managed to rebuild their homes and lives.

By the time we arrived in Sigli night was falling. I was tired, so we found a room and I took a nap. In the evening, I ate the greatest noodles I've ever tasted (and one of the greatest meals I've ever had the pleasure of consuming). It was Mie Aceh, which is everything good food should be: spicy, with a little bit of this and that (lime and stuff, y'know). The noodles were served on top of a whole soft-shelled crab, which was the crab of queens. In fact, the shell was so soft that it was edible, and every last bit of the crab - all of the shell, the pincers, legs, the lot included - was easily devoured. Man never tasted such a treat. The thought of it makes me want to go back!

After this, my companion drove me to his local mosque,


Here, I spoke with the Imam and asked him various questions about Islam in Aceh. He explained that he teaches scriptural Islam, which is based on a literal reading of the text of the al' Quran. This is very different from the Islams taught, understood, believed, and followed in many other parts of Indonesia, where local cultural traditions and customs are mixed with the faith, inevitably transforming the faith itself. On another note, the words of the Imam do not necessarily reflect reality in Aceh: here, too, certain tribes and people live according to local customs and mores, which sometimes take precedent over the "pure" faith. Since the tsunami, however, more and people have found solace and comfort in Islam and the Acehnese government has taken greater measures to enforce Sharia law.

I met these fellows at the mosque. They were delighted to meet me and even more delighted to hear that I came from Manchester.


I met also met my companions (his name was Jimmy) family. Here is a picture of his mother (his name was Jimmy), his sisters, and his sisters baby, and I was offered tea and biscuits and treated with usual Indonesian hospitality.


The village he lived in was a beautiful place, with small, functional houses and a wonderful community, the kind of place where family and other people come before the individual. People were incredibly hospitable, everybody said hello, and everybody was interested in discoursing with me. Here is a farmer working the field.


A mother with her child and a family. In these photos, notice that the women are not wearing the hijab, or as it is called in Indonesia, the jilbab. I suppose this reflects the difficulties the state faces in imposing Aceh law in the province and the ambivalence felt towards it by the everyday villager.



A river ran beside the village, where many of the villagers bathed, swam, and fished. The river was home to large monitor lizards which could be seen basking in the shallows as well as much larger water buffalo, many of which were owned by the villagers themselves (a water buffalo fetches a high price in North Sumatra).




After this, we left the village walked north so that we might see the beach. After passing through another village (pictured below) the land opened up and it was flat, completely at sea-level, with numerous villages dotting green planes used for farming rice and other foods.


Whether in the hills surrounding Jogjakarta or the beaches of the Westernmost province in Indonesia, Aceh, everybody seems to play football. These kids are no different.


Eventually, we passed through some small woods and came to the beach. This beach would have been completely engulfed by the 2004 tsunami, which had destroyed all of the villages I had passed through.

The Acehnese flag blowing in the wind: regional pride is strong here.


Before long, I found a number of fellows taking part in the beautiful game. Upon approaching them, they were most pleased at my presence and implored me to join them. We spoke about football and eventually I asked them about the 2004 tsunami, and more specifically, whether they were afraid of another potential tsunami happening in the near future. They simply laughed and told me that they don't worry about such things. Many of these fellows would have lost people close to them in the tsunami and so I found their smiles and general attitude amazing.


Shortly after this meeting night began to fall (see below). We made our back through the woods and back to house of my companion as the sound of the mosque blared from a distance. It's moments like these that you feel like you're in some kind of film or, at the very least, dreaming.


The next couple of days were spent travelling through the lands surrounding Sigli, where I visited a number of villages. Here are some photographs.


This is a small village hospital. I went inside and met the doctor working and I also got chatting to a mother there who was with her three jovial, mischievous little sprogs. She somehow managed to fit herself and her children on a single motorcycle!

This is a game which resembles pool (or billiards). The game is played with thick wooden tokens instead of balls and a board, or table, which is very smooth. I found these guys playing the game at a waroong which was located high above the nearest village.


I caught this picture whilst driving on motorcyle. The villagers are rice farmers.


Just as in Banda Aceh, Islam is strong in the countryside and helps glue society together here. Pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) are very common. The picture below shows a few students walking home from school - a long, hot, and difficult walk, at least for me!


As I mentioned in a previous post, Aceh has suffered from innumerable problems in the past, one of them being armed conflict. The college pictured below was destroyed by a fire and today it is a derelict, abandoned, burnt-out building, with no use or function.





All is not lost, however, and since the destruction, life has begun to bloom.




Finally, I visited a memorial for the Acehnese people, which paid tribute to the innocent victims of the tsunami. As one might expect, numerous memorials, museums, and shrines dedicated to the victims of the tsunami have been built around Aceh since the horrors of 2004.



The victim is mentioned alongside the specific village they originated from.


I also visited the GAM office in Sigli. If you've read my other posts, you will know that GAM was the organization which fought for independence against the Indonesian state. After the tsunami, however, they agreed a ceasefire with the state and today they work with in conjunction with the Acehnese and Indonesian governments respectively. There, I had the opportunity to drink coffee and have a chat with a few of the receptionists.


And so, my journey in Aceh came to an end. Overall, I had a great time and thoroughly enjoyed experiencing, with my own senses, the folly of a stereotype which labels the Acehnese people and the region itself as dangerous. I also experienced the ambivalence of Islam in the region, witnessed the limits of state-control, and strengthened my ultimate conviction bar none that human beings are human beings, regardless of skin colour, religion, or ethnic background. In a word: bagus.

Posted by dabey 22:00 Archived in Indonesia Comments (0)

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